Detailed instructions for installing dependencies



WinPython or Anaconda are advised. xrt can run in both Python 2 and Python 3 branches. Python 3 is recommended as Python 2 will retire soon.

In WinPython, there are “Qt” and “Zero” installation versions for, correspondingly, many and no site-packages included. In the latter case use pip to install the required dependencies.


Python is usually pre-installed in all popular distributions. You may prefer Anaconda, as it already has all the required packages, except pyopencl and glut (see below).


Anaconda is the only option to run xrt.


xrt relies heavily on numpy (>=1.8.0), scipy (>=0.17.0) and matplotlib (>=2.0.0) packages, these three are essential. Tkinter is used by matplotlib for plotting but often requires manual installation.

Some of xrt examples require xlrd, xlwt and pandas for working with Excel files (i.e. for custom magnetic field data).

Spyder (>=3.0.0) is a cross-platform IDE for python; xrtQook GUI uses some of its libraries to provide the editor and the console interface (highly recommended for nicer look). Be aware that starting from version 3.2.0 spyder switched to IPython and has no classic python console (consider version 3.1.4 in case you want the classic console). The IPython console of spyder does unwanted integration of matplotlib images (can be switched off) and prohibits the use of multiprocessing. Therefore, if you run an xrt script from spyder, select to run it in an external console.

Sphinx (>=1.6.2) creates nice looking documentation pages dynamically displayed by xrtQook. Sphinx is also a part of Spyder installation.

pyopencl (>=2015.1) is highly recommended if you calculate undulator sources (it’s still possible in pure numpy, but significantly slower), and is required for custom magnetic field sources and wave propagation. Some materials (Powder, CrystalHarmonics) will not work without pyopencl.

PyQt4 (Qt>=4.8) or PyQt5 (Qt>=5.7) are needed for xrtQook interface.

PyOpenGL (>=3.1.1) and PyOpenGL_Accelerate (>=3.1.1) (not required but recommended) are used by xrtGlow for the 3D scene rendering.

Automatic installation of dependencies

Starting from version 1.3.1 xrt installer script automatically analyses the list of dependencies. Just run the pip install command:

pip install xrt
#or, if you've downloaded the archive from github:
pip install <xrt-zip-file>

In addition to the automatic installation: be aware that in python2 you have to install PyQt4 libraries manually. Linux users should install tkinter backend (python-tk or python3-tk) using a system package manager. Binary packages of pyopengl are highly recommended for Windows users (see below).

Manual installation of dependencies


If you prefer to work with WinPython “Zero”, you should manually install all required packages first. The simplest way for this is to get the pre-compiled whl distributions from Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages by C. Gohlke. To install a whl package, start a terminal: as “WinPython Command Prompt.exe” and run:

pip install <path-to-whl>

If you use Anaconda, type the above command in a system terminal launched from “anaconda/Scripts” or “anaconda/bin” folder.


If you use Anaconda, the required packages are already there, except it probably lacks the GLUT library used by PyOpenGL. In this case do:

./conda install -c conda-forge pyopengl freeglut # from anaconda/bin

If you use a system-wide Python, all required packages can be installed with a system package manager (aptitude, yum) or with pip. Names of the packages can differ, here are the corresponding commands for both cases.

For python2:

#base xrt dependencies
sudo apt-get install python-numpy python-scipy python-matplotlib python-tk spyder
#file import
sudo apt-get install python-pandas python-xlrd python-xlwt
#GUI (xrtQook and xrtGlow)
sudo apt-get install python-qt4 python-qt4-gl python-qwt5-qt4 freeglut3-dev python-opengl

For python3:

sudo apt-get install python3-numpy python3-scipy python3-matplotlib python3-tk spyder3
sudo apt-get install python3-pandas python3-xlrd
sudo apt-get install python3-pyqt5 python3-pyqt5.qtopengl freeglut3-dev python3-opengl

If using pip, some packages still have to be installed from a system package manager. In case of python 2, these are all GUI packages (see above) and python-tk. pip will take care of the rest. Python2:

pip install numpy scipy matplotlib spyder
pip install pandas xlrd xlwt
pip install pyopengl pyopengl_accelerate

In Python3 replace pip with pip3. PyQt5 is available from pip. python3-tk should be installed with a system package manager. Python3:

pip3 install pyqt5

Sometimes QtWebEngineWidgets is reported as missing: No module named ‘PyQt5.QtWebEngineWidgets’. Then:

pip3 install PyQtWebEngine


Use conda package manager to install all required packages:

cd <anaconda/bin>
./conda install numpy scipy matplotlib pytools spyder pyqt
./conda install -c conda-forge pyopengl


Before installing PyOpenCL you need at least one existing OpenCL implementation (driver). OpenCL can come with a graphics card driver and/or with an OpenCL CPU runtime. High profile graphics cards (those with a high FP64/FP32 ratio) are advantageous. If you try xrt in a VM, pocl may be useful:

./conda install -c conda-forge pocl  # from anaconda/bin

On Windows, the binary package of pyopencl by C. Gohlke usually works out of the box.

If you use Anaconda in Linux or macOS:

./conda install -c conda-forge pyopencl  # from anaconda/bin

In Linux Anaconda you may encounter the situation when pyopencl finds no OpenCL driver, which is reported by xrtQook on its welcome screen. The solution is presented here. It consists of copying *.icd files from /etc/OpenCL/vendors to <your-anaconda>/etc/OpenCL/vendors or to your environment within anaconda if you use it.

If you use a system-wide Python in Linux, do similar to this (works on Ubuntu 18.04 with the recommended Nvidia proprietary driver or OpenCL runtime for Intel processors):

sudo apt-get install opencl-headers ocl-icd-opencl-dev
pip install pyopencl  # pip3 for python3

Instead of installing ocl-icd-opencl-dev, one can locate and create a symbolic link in /usr/lib or any other lib folder in the path search.